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\begin{document}
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\section*{Section A: \ \ \ Pure Mathematics}
%%%%%%%%%%Q1
\begin{question}
Show that
\[
\int_0^a \frac{\sinh x}{2\cosh^2 x -1} \, \mathrm{d} x = \frac{1}{2 \sqrt{2}} \ln \l \frac{\sqrt{2}\cosh a -1}{\sqrt{2}\cosh a +1}\r + \frac{1}{2 \sqrt{2}} \ln \l \frac{\sqrt{2}+1}{\sqrt{2}-1}\r
\]
and find
\[
\int_0^a \frac{\cosh x}{1+2\sinh^2 x} \, \mathrm{d} x \, .
\]
Hence show that
\[
\int_0^\infty \frac{\cosh x - \sinh x}{1+2\sinh^2 x} \, \mathrm{d} x = \frac{\pi}{2\sqrt{2}} - \frac{1}{2 \sqrt{2}} \ln \l \frac{\sqrt{2}+1}{\sqrt{2}-1}\r \, .
\]
By substituting $u = \e^x$ in this result, or otherwise, find
\[
\int_1^\infty \frac{1}{1+u^4} \, \mathrm{d} u \, .
\]
\end{question}
%%%%%%%%%%Q2
\begin{question}
The equation of a curve is $y=\f ( x )$ where
\[
\f ( x ) = x-4-{16 \l 2x+1 \r^2 \over x^2 \l x - 4 \r} \;.
\]
\begin{questionparts}
\item
Write down the equations of the vertical and oblique asymptotes to the curve and
show that the oblique asymptote is a tangent to the curve.
\item
Show that the equation $\f ( x ) =0$ has a double root.
\item
Sketch the curve.
\end{questionparts}
\end{question}
%%%%%%%%% Q3
\begin{question}
Given that $\f''(x) > 0$ when $a \le x \le b\,$,
explain with the aid of a sketch why
\[
(b-a) \, \f \Big( {a+b \over 2} \Big)
< \int^b_a \f(x) \, \mathrm{d}x
< (b-a) \, \displaystyle \frac{\f(a) + \f(b)}{2} \;.
\]
By choosing suitable $a$, $b$ and $\f(x)\,$, show that
\[
{4 \over (2n-1)^2} < {1 \over n-1} - {1 \over n}
< {1 \over 2} \l {1 \over n^2} + {1 \over (n-1)^2}\r \,,
\]
where $n$ is an integer greater than 1.
Deduce that
\[
4 \l {1 \over 3^2} +{1 \over 5^2} + {1 \over 7^2} + \cdots \r
< 1
< {1 \over 2} +
\left( {1 \over 2^2} +{1 \over 3^2} + {1 \over 4^2} + \cdots \right)\,.
\]
Show that
\[
{1 \over 2} \l {1 \over 3^2}
+ {1 \over 4^2} + {1 \over 5^2} + \frac 1 {6^2} + \cdots \right)
<
{1 \over 3^2} +{1 \over 5^2} + {1 \over 7^2}
+ \cdots
\]
and hence show that
\[
{3 \over 2} \displaystyle
< \sum_{n=1}^\infty {1 \over n^2} <{7 \over 4}\;.
\]
\end{question}
%%%%%% Q4
\begin{question}The triangle $OAB$ is isosceles,
with $OA = OB$ and angle $AOB = 2 \alpha$ where $0< \alpha < {\pi \over 2}\,$.
The semi-circle $\mathrm{C}_0$ has its centre at the midpoint of the base $AB$ of the triangle,
and the sides $OA$ and $OB$ of the triangle are both tangent to the semi-circle.
$\mathrm{C}_1, \mathrm{C}_2, \mathrm{C}_3, \ldots$
are circles such that $\mathrm{C}_n$ is tangent to $\mathrm{C}_{n-1}$
and to sides $OA$ and $OB$ of the triangle.
Let $r_n$ be the radius of $\mathrm{C}_n\,$. Show that
\[
\frac{r_{n+1}}{r_n} = \frac{1-\sin\alpha}{1+\sin\alpha}\;.
\]
Let $S$ be the total area of the semi-circle $\mathrm{C}_0$ and the
circles $\mathrm{C}_1$, $\mathrm{C}_2$, $\mathrm{C}_3$, $\ldots\;$.
Show that
\[
S = {1 + \sin^2 \alpha \over 4 \sin \alpha} \, \pi r_0^2 \;.
\]
Show that there are values of $\alpha$ for which $S$ is more than four fifths
of the area of triangle~$OAB$.
\end{question}
%%%%%%%%% Q5
\begin{question}
Show that if $\, \cos(x - \alpha) = \cos \beta \,$
then either $\, \tan x = \tan ( \alpha + \beta)\,$ or
$\; \tan x = \tan ( \alpha - \beta)\,$.
By choosing suitable values of $x$, $\alpha$ and $\beta\,$,
give an example to show that if
$\,\tan x = \tan ( \alpha + \beta)\,$,
then $\,\cos(x - \alpha) \, $ need not equal $ \cos \beta \,$.
Let $\omega$ be the acute angle such that $\tan \omega = \frac 43\,$.
\begin{questionparts}
\item For $0 \le x \le 2 \pi$, solve the equation
\[
\cos x -7 \sin x = 5
\]
giving both solutions in terms of $\omega\,$.
\item For $0 \le x \le 2 \pi$, solve the equation
\[
2\cos x + 11 \sin x = 10
\]
showing that one solution is twice the other and giving both in terms of $\omega\,$.
\end{questionparts}
\end{question}
%%%%%%%%% Q6
\begin{question}
Given a sequence $w_0$, $w_1$, $w_2$, $\ldots\,$, the sequence $F_1$, $F_2$, $\ldots$ is
defined by
$$F_n = w_n^2 + w_{n-1}^2 - 4w_nw_{n-1} \,.$$
Show that
$\;
F_{n}-F_{n-1} = \l w_n-w_{n-2} \r \l w_n+w_{n-2}-4w_{n-1} \r \;
$ for $n \ge 2\,$.
\begin{questionparts}
\item
The sequence $u_0$, $u_1$, $u_2$, $\ldots$
has $u_0 = 1$, and $u_1 = 2$ and satisfies
\[
u_n = 4u_{n-1} -u_{n-2} \quad (n \ge 2)\;.
\]
Prove that
\ $
u_n^2 + u_{n-1}^2 = 4u_nu_{n-1}-3
\; $
for $n \ge 1\,$.
\item
A sequence $v_0$, $v_1$, $v_2$, $\ldots\,$ has $v_0=1$ and satisfies
\begin{equation*}
v_n^2 + v_{n-1}^2 = 4v_nv_{n-1}-3 \quad (n \ge 1). \tag{$\ast$}
\end{equation*}
\makebox[7mm]{(a) \hfill}Find $v_1$ and prove that, for each $n\ge2\,$, either
$v_n= 4v_{n-1} -v_{n-2}$ or $v_n=v_{n-2}\,$.
\makebox[7mm]{(b) \hfill}Show that the sequence, with period 2, defined by
\begin{equation*}
v_n =
\begin{cases}
1 & \mbox{for $n$ even} \\
2 & \mbox{for $n$ odd}
\end{cases}
\end{equation*}
\makebox[7mm]{\hfill}satisfies $(\ast)$.
\makebox[7mm]{(c) \hfill}Find a sequence $v_n$ with period 4
which has $v_0=1\,$, and satisfies~$(\ast)$.
\end{questionparts}
\end{question}
%%%%%%%%% Q7
\begin{question}
For $n=1$, $2$, $3$, $\ldots\,$, let
\[
I_n = \int_0^1 {t^{n-1} \over \l t+1 \r^n} \, \mathrm{d} t \, .
\]
By considering the greatest value taken by
$\ds {t \over t+1}$ for $0 \le t \le 1$
show that
$I_{n+1} < {1 \over 2} I_{n}\,$.
Show also that
$\; \ds I_{n+1}= - \frac 1{\; n\, 2^n} + I_{n}\,$.
Deduce that
$\; \ds I_n < \frac1 {\; n \, 2^{n-1}}\,$.
Prove that
\[
\ln 2 = \sum_{r=1}^n {1 \over \; r\, 2^r} + I_{n+1}
\]
and hence show that \hspace{2 pt} ${2 \over 3} < \ln 2 < {17 \over 24}\,$.
\end{question}
%%%%%%%%% Q8
\begin{question}
Show that if
\[
{\mathrm{d}y \over \mathrm{d} x}=\f(x)y + {\g(x) \over y}
\]
then the substitution $u = y^2$ gives a linear differential equation for $u(x)\,$.
Hence or otherwise solve the differential equation
\[
{\mathrm{d}y \over \mathrm{d} x}={y \over x} - {1 \over y}\;.
\]
Determine the solution curves of
this equation which pass through
$(1 \,, 1)\,$, $(2\, , 2)$ and
$(4 \, , 4)$ and sketch graphs of all three curves on the same axes.
\end{question}
\newpage
\section*{Section B: \ \ \ Mechanics}
%%%%%%%%%% Q9
\begin{question}
A circular hoop of radius $a$ is free to rotate about a fixed horizontal
axis passing through a point $P$ on its circumference. The plane of the hoop
is perpendicular to this axis.
The hoop hangs in equilibrium with its centre, $O$, vertically below $P$.
The point $A$ on the hoop is vertically below $O$, so that $POA$ is a diameter of the hoop.
A mouse $M$ runs at constant speed $u$ round the
rough inner surface of the lower part of the hoop.
Show that the mouse can choose its speed so that the hoop
remains in equilibrium with diameter $POA$ vertical.
Describe what happens to the hoop when the mouse passes the point at which angle
$AOM = 2 \arctan \mu\,$,
where $\mu$ is the coefficient of friction between mouse and hoop.
\end{question}
%%%%%%%%%% Q10
\begin{question}
A particle $P$ of mass $m$ is attached to points $A$ and $B$, where $A$ is a distance $9a$
vertically above $B$, by elastic strings,
each of which has modulus of elasticity $6mg$.
The string $AP$ has natural length $6a$ and the string
$BP$ has natural length $2a$. Let $x$ be the distance $AP$.
The system is released from rest with $P$
on the vertical line $AB$ and $x = 6a$.
Show that the acceleration $\ddot{x}$ of $P$ is
$\ds{4g \over a}(7a - x)$ for $6ax_1\,$.
Each particle is subject to a repulsive force from the other
of magnitude $\displaystyle {2 \over z^3}$, where $z = x_2-x_1 \,$.
Initially, $x_1=0$, $x_2 = 1$, $Q$ is at rest and
$P$ moves towards $Q$ with speed 1.
Show that $z$ obeys the equation
$\displaystyle {\mathrm{d}^2 z \over \mathrm{d}t^2} = {3 \over z^3}$.
By first writing
$\displaystyle {\mathrm{d}^2 z \over \mathrm{d}t^2} = v {\mathrm{d}v \over \mathrm{d}z} \,$,
where $\displaystyle v={\mathrm{d}z \over \mathrm{d}t}\,$,
show that $z=\sqrt{4t^2-2t+1}\,$.
By considering the equation satisfied by $2x_1+x_2\,$,
find $x_1$ and $x_2$ in terms of $t \,$.
\end{question}
\newpage
\section*{Section C: \ \ \ Probability and Statistics}
%%%%%%%%%% Q12
\begin{question}
A team of $m$ players, numbered from $1$ to $m$,
puts on a set of a $m$ shirts, similarly numbered from $1$ to $m$.
The players change in a hurry, so that the shirts are assigned to them randomly,
one to each player.
Let $C_i$ be the random variable that takes the value $1$ if player $i$ is wearing shirt $i$,
and 0 otherwise. Show that $\mathrm{E}\left(C_1\right)={1 \over m}$
and find
$\var \left(C_1\right)$ and $\mathrm{Cov}\left(C_1 \, , \; C_2 \right) \,$.
Let $\, N = C_1 + C_2 + \cdots + C_m \,$
be the random variable whose value is the number of players who are wearing the correct shirt.
Show that $\mathrm{E}\left(N\right)= \var \left(N\right) = 1 \,$.
Explain why a Normal approximation to $N$ is not likely to be appropriate for any $m$,
but that a Poisson approximation might be reasonable.
In the case $m = 4$, find, by listing equally likely possibilities or otherwise,
the probability that no player is wearing the correct shirt
and verify that an appropriate Poisson approximation to $N$
gives this probability with a relative error of about $2\%$. [Use $\e \approx 2\frac{72}{100} \,$.]
\end{question}
%%%%%%%%%% Q13
\begin{question}
A men's endurance competition has an unlimited number of rounds.
In each round, a competitor has, independently, a probability $p$ of making it through the round;
otherwise, he fails the round.
Once a competitor fails a round, he drops out of the competition;
before he drops out, he takes part in every round.
The grand prize is awarded to any competitor who makes it through a round
which all the other remaining competitors fail;
if all the remaining competitors fail at the same round the grand prize is not awarded.
If the competition begins with three competitors, find the probability that:
\begin{questionparts}
\item all three drop out in the same round;
\item two of them drop out in round $r$ (with $r \ge 2$) and the third in an earlier round;
\item the grand prize is awarded.
\end{questionparts}
\end{question}
%%%%%%%%%% Q14
\begin{question}
\textit{In this question, $\Phi(z)$ is the cumulative distribution
function of a standard normal random variable.}
A random variable is known to have a
Normal distribution with mean $\mu$ and standard deviation
either $\sigma_0$ or $\sigma_1$, where $\sigma_0 < \sigma_1\,$.
The mean, $\overline{X}$, of a random sample of $n$ values of $X$
is to be used to test the hypothesis
$\mathrm{H}_0: \sigma = \sigma_0$ against the alternative $\mathrm{H}_1: \sigma = \sigma_1\,$.
Explain carefully why it is appropriate
to use a two sided test of the form:
accept $\mathrm{H}_0$ if \phantom{} $\mu - c < \overline{X} < \mu+c\,$, otherwise accept $\mathrm{H}_1$.
Given that the probability of accepting $\mathrm{H}_1$
when $\mathrm{H}_0$ is true is $\alpha$,
determine $c$ in terms of $n$, $\sigma_0$ and $z_{\alpha}$, where
$z_\alpha $ is defined by $\ds\Phi(z_{\alpha}) = 1 - \tfrac{1}{2}\alpha$.
The probability of accepting $\mathrm{H}_0$ when $\mathrm{H}_1$ is true
is denoted by $\beta$. Show that $\beta$ is independent of $n$.
Given that $\Phi(1.960)\approx 0.975$ and that $\Phi(0.063) \approx 0.525\,$,
determine, approximately, the minimum value of $\ds \frac{\sigma_1}{\sigma_0}$
if $\alpha$ and $\beta$ are both to be less than $0.05\,$.
\end{question}
\end{document}