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\section*{Section A: \ \ \ Pure Mathematics}
%%%%%%%%%%Q1
\begin{question}
The line $L$ has equation $y=c-mx$, with $m>0$ and $c>0$.
It passes through the point
$R(a,b)$ and cuts the axes at the points $P(p,0)$ and $Q(0,q)$,
where $a$, $b$, $p$ and $q$ are all positive. Find $p$ and $q$
in terms of $a$, $b$ and $m$.
As $L$ varies with $R$ remaining fixed, show that
the minimum value of the sum of the distances
of $P$ and $Q$ from the origin is $(a^{\frac12} + b^{\frac12})^2$,
and find in a similar form
the minimum distance between $P$ and $Q$. (You may assume
that any stationary values of these distances are minima.)
\end{question}
%%%%%%%%%%Q2
\begin{question}
\begin{questionparts}
\item
Sketch the curve
$
y= x^4-6x^2+9
$
giving the coordinates of the stationary points.
Let $n$ be the number of distinct real values of $x$ for which
\[
x^4-6x^2 +b=0.
\]
State the values of $b$, if any, for which
\ (a) $n=0\,$;
\ (b) $n=1\,$;
\ (c) $n=2\,$;
\ (d) $n=3\,$;
\ (e) $n=4\,$.
\item
For which values of $a$ does the curve $y= x^4-6x^2 +ax +b$
have a point at which
both $\dfrac{\d y}{\d x}=0$ and $\dfrac{\d^2y}{\d x^2}=0\,$?
For these values of $a$,
find the number of distinct real values of $x$ for which
$\vphantom{\dfrac{A}{B}}$
\[
x^4-6x^2 +ax +b=0\,,
\]
in the different cases that arise according to the
value of $b$.
\item Sketch the curve $y= x^4-6x^2 +ax$ in the case $a>8\,$.
\end{questionparts}
\end{question}
%%%%%%%%% Q3
\begin{question}
\begin{questionparts}
\item
Sketch the curve $y=\sin x$ for $0\le x \le \tfrac12 \pi$
and add to your diagram the
tangent to the curve at the origin and the chord joining the
origin to the point $(b, \sin b)$, where $0**1$, show
that
\[
\frac{2(a-1)}{a+1} < \ln a < -1 + \sqrt{2a-1\,}\,.
\]
[{\bf Hint}: You may wish to write $a^x$ as $\e^{x\ln a}$.]
\end{questionparts}
\end{question}
%%%%%% Q4
\begin{question}
The curve $C$ has equation $xy = \frac12$.
The tangents to $C$ at the distinct
points
$
P\big(p,
\frac1
{
\rule[0pt]{0pt}{2.7mm}
\mbox{\fontsize{10pt}{13}\selectfont$2p$}
}
\big)
$
and
$
Q\big(q,
\frac1
{
\rule[0pt]{0pt}{2.7mm}
\mbox{\fontsize{10pt}{13}\selectfont$2q$}
}
\big),
$
where $p$ and $q$ are positive,
intersect at $T$ and the normals to $C$
at these points intersect at~$N$. Show that
$T$ is the point
\[
\left( \frac{2pq}{p+q}\,,\, \frac 1 {p+q}\right)\!.
\]
In the case $pq=\frac12$, find the coordinates of $N$. Show (in this case)
that
$T$ and $N$ lie on the line $y=x$ and are such that the
product of their distances from the origin is constant.
\end{question}
%%%%%%%%% Q5
\begin{question}
Show that
\[
\int_0^{\frac14\pi} \sin (2x) \ln(\cos x)\, \d x = \frac14(\ln 2 -1)\,,
\]
and that
\[
\int_0^{\frac14\pi} \cos (2x) \ln(\cos x)\, \d x = \frac18(\pi -\ln 4-2)\,.
\]
Hence evaluate
\[
\int_{\frac14\pi}^{\frac12\pi}
\big ( \cos(2x) + \sin (2x)\big) \, \ln \big( \cos x + \sin x\big)\, \d x\,.
\]
\end{question}
%%%%%%%%% Q6
\begin{question}
A thin circular path with diameter $AB$ is laid on horizontal ground.
A vertical flagpole is erected with its base at a point $D$
on the diameter $AB$. The angles of
elevation of the top of the flagpole from $A$ and $B$ are $\alpha$ and
$\beta$ respectively (both are acute).
The point $C$ lies on the circular path
with $DC$ perpendicular to $AB$ and the angle of elevation of the top of the
flagpole from $C$ is $\phi$. Show that $\cot\alpha\cot \beta = \cot^2\phi$.
Show that, for any $p$ and $q$,
\[
\cos p \cos q \sin^2\tfrac12(p+q)
- \sin p\sin q \cos^2 \tfrac12 (p+q) =
\tfrac12 \cos(p+q) -\tfrac12 \cos(p+q)\cos(p-q)
.\]
Deduce that, if $p$ and $q$ are positive and $ p+q \le \tfrac12 \pi$,
then
\[
\cot p\cot q\,
\ge \cot^2 \tfrac12(p+q) \,
\]
and hence show
that $\phi \le \tfrac12(\alpha+\beta)$
when $ \alpha +\beta \le \tfrac12 \pi\,$.
\end{question}
%%%%%%%%% Q7
\begin{question}
A sequence of numbers $t_0$, $t_1$, $t_2$, $\ldots\,$ satisfies
\[
\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \
t_{n+2} = p t_{n+1}+qt_{n} \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ (n\ge0),
\]
where $p$ and $q$ are real. Throughout this question, $x$, $y$ and $z$ are non-zero real numbers.
\begin{questionparts}
\item Show that, if $t_n=x$ for all values of $n$,
then $p+q=1$ and $x$ can be any (non-zero) real number.
\item
Show that, if $t_{2n} = x$ and $t_{2n+1}=y$ for all values of $n$,
then $q\pm p=1$. Deduce that either $x=y$ or $x=-y$, unless
$p$ and $q$ take certain values that you should identify.
\item
Show that, if $t_{3n} = x$, $t_{3n+1}=y$ and $t_{3n+2}=z$
for all values of $n$,
then
\[
p^3+q^3 +3pq-1=0\,.
\]
Deduce that either $p+q=1$ or
$(p-q)^2 +(p+1)^2+(q+1)^2=0$. Hence show that either
$x=y=z$ or $x+y+z=0$.
\end{questionparts}
\end{question}
%%%%%%%%% Q8
\begin{question}
\begin{questionparts}
\item
Show that substituting $y=xv$, where $v$ is a function of $x$, in the
differential equation
\[
\hphantom{(x\ne0)\hspace*{2cm}}
xy \frac{\d y}{\d x} +y^2- 2x^2 =0
{\hspace*{2cm}(x\ne0)}
\]
leads to the differential equation
\[
xv\frac{\d v}{\d x} +2v^2 -2=0\,.
\]
Hence show that the general solution can be written in the form
\[
x^2(y^2 -x^2) = C
\,,
\] where $C$ is a constant.
\item
Find the general solution of the differential equation
\[
\hphantom{(x\ne0)\hspace*{2cm}}
y \frac{\d y}{\d x} +6x +5y=0\,
{\hspace*{2cm}(x\ne0)}
.
\]
\end{questionparts}
\end{question}
\newpage
\section*{Section B: \ \ \ Mechanics}
%%%%%%%%%% Q9
\begin{question}
A tall shot-putter
projects a small shot
from a point $2.5\,$m above the ground, which is horizontal.
The speed of projection is
$10\,$m\,s$^{- 1}$ and the angle of projection is $\theta$
above the horizontal.
Taking the acceleration due to gravity to be $10\,$m\,s$^{-2}$,
show that the time,
in seconds, that elapses before the shot hits the ground is
\[
\frac1{\sqrt2}\left ( \sqrt{1-c}+ \sqrt{2-c}\right),
\]
where $c = \cos2\theta$.
Find an expression for the range in terms of $c$ and show that
it is greatest when $c= \frac15\,$.
Show that the extra distance attained
by projecting the shot at this angle rather than at an angle of $45^\circ$
is $5(\sqrt6 -\sqrt2 -1)\,$m.
\end{question}
%%%%%%%%%% Q10
\begin{question}
I stand at the top of a vertical well.
The
depth of the well, from the top to the surface of the water, is
$D$. I drop a stone from
the top of the well and
measure the time that
elapses between the release of the stone and the moment when
I hear the splash of the stone entering the water.
In order to gauge the depth of the well,
I climb a distance $\delta$ down into the well
and drop a stone from my new position. The
time until I hear the splash is $t$ less than the previous time.
Show that
\[
t = \sqrt{\frac{2D}g} -
\sqrt{\frac{2(D-\delta)}g} + \frac \delta u\,,
\]
where $u$ is the (constant) speed of sound.
Hence show that
\[
D = \tfrac12 gT^2\,,
\]
where $T= \dfrac12 \beta + \dfrac \delta{\beta g}$
and $\beta = t - \dfrac \delta u\,$.
Taking
$u=300\,$m\,s$^{-1}$
and $g=10\,$m\,s$^{-2}$,
show that if $t= \frac 15\,$s and $\delta=10\,$m,
the well is approximately $185\,$m deep.
\end{question}
%%%%%%%%%% Q11
\begin{question}
The diagram shows two particles, $A$ of mass $5m$ and $B$ of mass $3m$,
connected by a light inextensible string
which passes over two smooth,
light, fixed pulleys, $Q$ and $R$,
and under a smooth pulley $P$ which has mass $M$ and is free to move
vertically.
Particles $A$ and $B$ lie on fixed rough planes
inclined to the horizontal at angles of $\arctan \frac 7{24}$ and
$\arctan\frac43$ respectively.
The segments $AQ$ and $RB$ of the string are
parallel to their respective planes, and segments $QP$
and
$PR$ are vertical.
The coefficient of friction between each particle and its plane is $\mu$.
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\begin{questionparts}
\item Given that the system is in equilibrium,
with both $A$ and $B$ on the point of moving up their planes,
determine the value of $\mu$ and show that $M = 6m$.
\item In the case when $M = 9m$, determine the
initial accelerations of $A$, $B$ and $P$ in terms of $g$.
\end{questionparts}
\end{question}
\newpage
\section*{Section C: \ \ \ Probability and Statistics}
%%%%%%%%%% Q12
\begin{question}
Fire extinguishers may become faulty at any time
after manufacture and
are tested
annually on the
anniversary of manufacture.
The time $T$ years after manufacture
until a fire extinguisher
becomes faulty
is modelled by the continuous
probability density function
\[
\f(t) =
\begin{cases}
\dfrac{2t}{(1+t^2)^2}& \text{for $t\ge0$}\,,\\[4mm]
\ \ \ \ 0& \text{otherwise}.
\end{cases}
\]
A faulty fire extinguisher will fail an annual test
with probability $p$, in which case it is destroyed immediately. A non-faulty
fire extinguisher will always pass the test. All of the annual tests
are independent.
Show that the probability
that a randomly chosen fire extinguisher will be destroyed exactly
three years after its manufacture is $p(5p^2-13p +9)/10$.
Find the probability that a randomly chosen
fire extinguisher
that was destroyed exactly three years after its manufacture
was faulty 18 months after its manufacture.
\end{question}
%%%%%%%%%% Q13
\begin{question}
I choose at random an integer in the
range 10000 to 99999, all choices being
equally likely. Given that my choice
does not contain the digits 0, 6, 7, 8 or 9,
show that the expected number of different digits
in my choice is 3.3616.
\end{question}
\end{document}
**