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\section*{Section A: \ \ \ Pure Mathematics}
%%%%%%%%%%Q1
\begin{question}
\begin{questionparts}
\item By use of calculus, show that $x- \ln(1+x)$ is positive for all positive $x$. Use this result to show that
\[
\sum_{k=1}^n \frac 1 k > \ln (n+1)
\,.
\]
\item By considering $ x+\ln (1-x)$, show that
\[
\sum_{k=1}^\infty \frac 1 {k^2} <1+ \ln 2
\,.
\]
\end{questionparts}
\end{question}
%%%%%%%%%%Q2
\begin{question}
In the triangle $ABC$, angle $BAC = \alpha$ and angle $CBA= 2\alpha$, where $2\alpha$ is acute, and $BC= x$. Show that $AB = (3-4 \sin^2\alpha)x$.
The point $D$ is the midpoint of $AB$ and the point $E$ is the foot of the perpendicular from $C$ to $AB$. Find an expression for $DE$ in terms of $x$.
The point $F$ lies on the perpendicular bisector of $AB$ and is a distance $x$ from $C$. The points $F$ and $B$ lie on the same side of the line through $A$ and $C$. Show that the line $FC$ trisects the angle $ACB$.
\end{question}
%%%%%%%%% Q3
\begin{question}
Three rods have lengths $a$, $b$ and $c$, where $a< b< c$. The three rods can be made into a triangle (possibly of zero area) if $a+b\ge c$.
Let $T_{n}$ be the number of triangles that can be made with three rods chosen from $n$ rods of lengths $1$, $2$, $3$, $\ldots$ , $n$ (where $n\ge3$). Show that $T_8-T_7 = 2+4+6$ and evaluate $T_8 -T_6$. Write down expressions for $T_{2m}-T_{2m-1}$ and $T_{2m} - T_{2m-2}$.
Prove by induction that $T_{2m}=\frac 16 m (m-1)(4m+1)\,$, and find the corresponding result for an odd number of rods.
\end{question}
%%%%%% Q4
\begin{question}
\begin{questionparts}
\item The continuous function $\f$ is defined by
\[
\tan \f(x) = x \ \ \ \ \ (-\infty < x <\infty)
\]
and $\f(0)=\pi$. Sketch the curve $y=\f(x)$\,.
\item The continuous function $\g$ is defined by
\[
\tan \g(x) = \frac x {1+x^2} \ \ \ \ \ \ (-\infty < x <\infty)
\]
and $\g(0)=\pi$. Sketch the curves $y= \dfrac x {1+x^2} \ $ and $y=\g(x)$\,.
\item
The continuous function $\h $ is defined by $\h (0)=\pi$ and
\[
\tan \h (x)= \frac x {1-x^2}\,
\ \ \ \ \ (x \ne \pm 1)
\,.
\]
(The values of $\h (x)$ at $x=\pm1$ are such that $\h (x)$ is continuous at these points.)
Sketch the curves $y= \dfrac x {1-x^2} \ $ and $y=\h (x)$.
%\item The continuous functions $\h_1$ and $\h_2$ are
% defined by: $\h_1(0)=\h_2(0)=\pi $,
%\[
%\tan \h_1(x) = \frac {x+x^4} {1+x^2+x^4}
%\ \ \ \ \ \text{and} \ \ \ \ \ \
%\tan \h_2(x) = \frac {4x-x^3} {1-x^4}
%\,.
%\]
%for values of $x$ at which the right hand sides are defined.
%Find $\lim\limits_{x\to\infty}\h_1(x)$ and $\lim\limits_{x\to\infty}\h_2(x)\,$.
\end{questionparts}
\end{question}
%%%%%%%%% Q5
\begin{question}
In this question, the $\mathrm{arctan}$ function satisfies $0\le \arctan x <\frac12 \pi$ for $x\ge0\,$.
\begin{questionparts}
\item Let
\[
S_n= \sum_{m=1}^n \arctan \left(\frac1 {2m^2}\right)
\,,
\]
for $n=1$, 2, 3, $\ldots$ . Prove by induction that
\[
\tan S_n = \frac n {n+1} \,.
\]
Prove also that
\[
S_n = \arctan \frac n {n+1} \,.
\]
\item In a triangle $ABC$, the lengths of the sides $AB$ and $BC$ are $4n^2$ and $4n^4-1$, respectively, and the angle at $B$ is a right angle. Let $\angle BCA = 2\alpha_n$. Show that
\[
\sum_{n=1}^\infty \alpha_n = \tfrac14\pi \,.
\]
\end{questionparts}
\end{question}
%%%%%%%%% Q6
\begin{question}
\begin{questionparts}
\item Show that
\[ \mathrm{sec}^2\left(\tfrac14\pi-\tfrac12 x\right)=\frac{2}{1+\sin x} \,.
\]
Hence integrate $\dfrac{1}{1+\sin x}$ with respect to $x$.
\item By means of the substitution $y=\pi -x$, show that
\[
\int_0^\pi x \f (\sin x)\, \d x = \frac \pi 2 \int_0^\pi \f(\sin x) \, \d x
,\]
where $\mathrm{f}$ is any function for which these integrals exist.
Hence evaluate
\[
\int_0^\pi \frac x {1+\sin x} \, \d x
\,.
\]
\item Evaluate
\[
\int_0^\pi\frac{ 2x^3 -3\pi x^2}{(1+\sin x)^2}\, \d x
.\]
\end{questionparts}
\end{question}
%%%%%%%%% Q7
\begin{question}
A circle $C$ is said to be {\em bisected} by a curve $X$ if $X$ meets $C$ in exactly two points and these points are diametrically opposite each other on $C$.
\begin{questionparts}
\item Let $C$ be the circle of radius $a$ in the $x$-$y$ plane with centre at the origin.
Show, by giving its equation, that it is possible to find a circle of given radius $r$ that bisects $C$ provided $r>a$. Show that no circle of radius $r$ bisects $C$ if $r\le a\,$.
\item Let $C_1$ and $C_2$ be circles with centres at $(-d,0)$ and $(d,0)$ and radii $a_1$ and $a_2$, respectively, where $d>a_1$ and $d>a_2$. Let $D$ be a circle of radius~$r$ that bisects both $C_1$ and $C_2$. Show that the $x$-coordinate of the centre of $D$ is $\dfrac{a_2^2 - a_1^2}{4d}$.
Obtain an expression in terms of $d$, $r$, $a_1$ and $a_2$ for the $y$-coordinate of the centre of~$D$, and deduce that $r$ must satisfy
\[
16r^2d^2 \ge \big (4d^2 +(a_2-a_1)^2\big) \, \big (4d^2 +(a_2+a_1)^2\big)
\,.
\]
\end{questionparts}
\end{question}
%%%%%%%%% Q8
\begin{question}
\noindent
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\psline(-2.44,-0.03)(6.18,-0.85)
\psline(-2.04,3.71)(6.55,-1.48)
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\rput[tl](2.85 ,0.15){$C_2$}
\rput[tl](-0.65,3.29){$L'$}
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\end{center}
The diagram above shows two non-overlapping circles $C_1$ and $C_2$ of different sizes. The lines $L$ and $L'$ are the two common tangents to $C_1$ and $C_2$ such that the two circles lie on the same side of each of the tangents. The lines $L$ and $L'$ intersect at the point $P$ which is called the {\em focus} of $C_1$ and $C_2$.
\begin{questionparts}
\item Let ${\bf x}_1$ and ${\bf x}_2$ be the position vectors of the centres of $C_1$ and $C_2$, respectively. Show that the position vector of $P$ is
\[
\frac{r_1 {\bf x}_2- r_2 {\bf x}_1}{r_1-r_2} \,,
\]
where $r_1$ and $r_2$ are the radii of $C_1$ and $C_2$, respectively.
\item The circle $C_3$ does not overlap either $C_1$ or $C_2$ and its radius, $r_3$, satisfies $r_1 \ne r_3 \ne r_2$. The focus of $C_1$ and $C_3$ is $Q$, and the focus of $C_2$ and $C_3$ is $R$. Show that $P$, $Q$ and~$R$ lie on the same straight line.
\item Find a condition on $r_1$, $r_2$ and $r_3$ for $Q$ to lie half-way between $P$ and $R$.
\end{questionparts}
\end{question}
\newpage
\section*{Section B: \ \ \ Mechanics}
%%%%%%%%%% Q9
\begin{question}
An equilateral triangle $ABC$ is made of three light rods each of length $a$. It is free to rotate in a vertical plane about a horizontal axis through $A$. Particles of mass $3m$ and $5m$ are attached to $B$ and $C$ respectively. Initially, the system hangs in equilibrium with $BC$ below~$A$.
\begin{questionparts}
\item Show that, initially, the angle $\theta$ that $BC$ makes with the horizontal is given by $\sin\theta = \frac17$.
\item The triangle receives an impulse that imparts a speed $v$ to the particle $B$. Find the minimum speed $v_0$ such that the system will perform complete rotations if $v>v_0$.
\end{questionparts}
\end{question}
%%%%%%%%%% Q10
\begin{question}
A particle of mass $m$ is pulled along the floor of a room in a straight line by a light string which is pulled at constant speed $V$ through a hole in the ceiling. The floor is smooth and horizontal, and the height of the room is $h$. Find, in terms of $V$ and $\theta$, the speed of the particle when the string makes an angle of $\theta$ with the vertical (and the particle is still in contact with the floor). Find also the acceleration, in terms of $V$, $h$ and $\theta$.
Find the tension in the string and hence show that the particle will leave the floor when
\[
\tan^4\theta = \frac{V^2}{gh}\,.
\]
\end{question}
%%%%%%%%%% Q11
\begin{question}
Three particles, $A$, $B$ and $C$, each of mass $m$, lie on a smooth horizontal table. Particles $A$ and $C$ are attached to the two ends of a light inextensible string of length $2a$ and particle~$B$ is attached to the midpoint of the string. Initially, $A$, $B$ and $C$ are at rest at points $(0,a)$, $(0,0)$ and $(0,-a)$, respectively.
An impulse is delivered to $B$, imparting to it a speed $u$ in the positive $x$ direction. The string remains taut throughout the subsequent motion.
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\rput[tl](2.1,1.94){$A$}
\rput[tl](3.2,0.4){$B$}
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\end{center}
\begin{questionparts}
\item At time $t$, the angle between the $x$-axis and the string joining $A$ and $B$ is $\theta$, as shown in the diagram, and $B$ is at $(x,0)$. Write down the coordinates of $A$ in terms of $x,a$ and $\theta$. Given that the velocity of $B$ is $(v,0)$, show that the velocity of $A$ is $(\dot x + a\sin\theta \,\dot \theta\,,\, a\cos\theta\, \dot\theta)$, where the dot denotes differentiation with respect to time.
\item Show that, before particles $A$ and $C$ first collide,
\[
3\dot x + 2a \dot\theta \sin\theta =v \text{ \ \ \ \ \ \ and \ \ \ \ \ \ } \dot \theta^2 = \frac{v^2}{a^2(3-2\sin^2\theta)}
\,.
\]
\item When $A$ and $C$ collide, the collision is elastic (no energy is lost). At what value of $\theta$ does the second collision between particles $A$ and $C$ occur? (You should justify your answer.)
\item When $v=0$, what are the possible values of $\theta$? Is $v =0$ whenever $\theta$ takes these values?
\end{questionparts}
\end{question}
\newpage
\section*{Section C: \ \ \ Probability and Statistics}
%%%%%%%%%% Q12
\begin{question}
Four players $A$, $B$, $C$ and $D$ play a coin-tossing game with a fair coin. Each player chooses a sequence of heads and tails, as follows:
\noindent
Player A: HHT; \ \ Player B: THH; \ \ Player C: TTH; \ \ Player D: HTT.
\noindent
The coin is then tossed until one of these sequences occurs, in which case the corresponding player is the winner.
\begin{questionparts}
\item Show that, if only $A$ and $B$ play, then $A$ has a probability of $\frac14$ of winning.
\item If all four players play together, find the probabilities of each one winning.
\item Only $B$ and $C$ play. What is the probability of $C$ winning if the first two tosses are~TT?
Let the probabilities of $C$ winning if the first two tosses are HT, TH and HH be $p$, $q$ and $r$, respectively. Show that $p=\frac12 +\frac12q$.
Find the probability that $C$ wins.
\end{questionparts}
\end{question}
%%%%%%%%%% Q13
\begin{question}
The maximum height $X$ of flood water each year on a certain river is a random variable with probability density function $\f$ given by
\[
\f(x) = \begin{cases}
\lambda \e^{-\lambda x} & \text{for $x\ge0$}\,, \\
0 & \text{otherwise,}
\end{cases}
\]
where $\lambda$ is a positive constant.
It costs $ky$ pounds each year to prepare for flood water of height $y$ or less, where $k$ is a positive constant and $y\ge0$. If $X \le y$ no further costs are incurred but if $X> y$ the additional cost of flood damage is $a(X - y )$ pounds where $a$ is a positive constant.
\begin{questionparts}
\item Let $C$ be the total cost of dealing with the floods in the year. Show that the expectation of $C$ is given by
\[\mathrm{E}(C)=ky+\frac{a}{\lambda}\mathrm{e}^{-\lambda y} \, .
\]
How should $y$ be chosen in order to minimise $\mathrm{E}(C)$, in the different cases that arise according to the value of $a/k$?
\item Find the variance of $C$, and show that the more that is spent on preparing for flood water in advance the smaller this variance.
\end{questionparts}
\end{question}
\end{document}